UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3)

UCLA Loneliness Scale-3 is an instrument measuring self-reported subjective feelings of loneliness and social isolation. Its 20 items use a Likert-type rating scale ranging from 1 (never) to 4 (always).


6th Grade,
7th Grade,
8th Grade,
9th Grade,
10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade,
Post secondary

Administration Information


Access and Use



Open Access
Use in Research

Kidd, S. A. (2007). Youth homelessness and social stigma. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(3), 291-299. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-006-9100-3

Li, S. H., Beames, J. R., Newby, J. M., Maston, K., Christensen, H., & Werner-Seidler, A. (2021). The impact of COVID-19 on the lives and mental health of Australian adolescents. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 1-13. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-021-01790-x

Nicpon, M. F., Huser, L., Blanks, E. H., Sollenberger, S., Befort, C., & Kurpius, S. E. R. (2006). The relationship of loneliness and social support with college freshmen's academic performance and persistence. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 8(3), 345-358. https://doi.org/10.2190/A465-356M-7652-783R 

Rodriguez-Besteiro, S., Tornero-Aguilera, J. F., Fernández-Lucas, J., & Clemente-Suárez, V. J. (2021). Gender differences in the COVID-19 pandemic risk perception, psychology, and behaviors of Spanish university students. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(8), 3908.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18083908 

Rotenberg, K. J., & Morrison, J. (1993). Loneliness and college achievement: Do loneliness scale scores predict college drop-out? Psychological Reports, 73(3_suppl), 1283-1288. https://doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1993.73.3f.1283


Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Mahon, N. E., Yarcheski, T. J., & Yarcheski, A. (1995). Validation of the revised UCLA loneliness scale for adolescents. Research in Nursing & Health, 18(3), 263-270.  https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770180309 

Russell, D. W. (1996). UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3): Reliability, validity, and factor structure. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66(1), 20-40. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa6601_2 

Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Cutrona, C. E. (1980). The revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39(3), 472. https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.39.3.472 

Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Ferguson, M. L. (1978). Developing a measure of loneliness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42(3), 290-294. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4203_11

Item Type

Psychometric Considerations

Psychometrics is the science of psychological assessment. A primary goal of EdInstruments is to provide information on crucial psychometric topics including Validity and Reliability – essential concepts of evaluation, which indicate how well an instrument measures a construct - as well as additional properties that are worthy of consideration when selecting an instrument of measurement.

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