Framework for Teaching (FfT)

Framework for Teaching is a classroom observation instrument that can be used for measuring and evaluating the instructional quality of all teachers (from pre-service to experienced) across K-12. The measure can be flexibly used by classroom teachers for professional learning, school leaders for evaluation, researchers for measurement, and system leaders as a common language for organizing the profession.

It should be noted that the majority of research on the Framework for Teaching focused on general education teachers. Studies exploring FfT with special education teachers (see “Psychometric references” below) suggest that they tend to be rated low on FfT’s instruction domain and that FfT does not reflect core practices known to support students with disabilities. 


Classroom Instruction,
Teacher Skills,
Teacher Beliefs
1st Grade,
2nd Grade,
3rd Grade,
4th Grade,
5th Grade,
6th Grade,
7th Grade,
8th Grade,
9th Grade,
10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade

Administration Information

There are 77 elements across 22 components covering four domains (Planning and Preparation; The Classroom Environment; Instruction; Professional Responsibilities). Suggested duration of use is not provided.

Access and Use


Training workshop prices vary by length. As of 2019, workshops cost ~$400 per person per day. Workshops for training evaluators using the measure for high-stakes evaluation are also available.

Open Access
Use in Research

Mantzicopoulos, P., French, B. F., Patrick, H., Watson, J. S., & Ahn, I. (2018). The stability of kindergarten teachers’ effectiveness: A generalizability study comparing the framework for teaching and the classroom assessment scoring system. Educational Assessment23(1), 24-46.


Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Jones, N. D., & Brownell, M. T. (2014). Examining the use of classroom observations in the evaluation of special education teachers. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 39(2), 112-124.

Kane, T. J., & Staiger, D. O. (2012). Gathering feedback for teaching: Combining high-quality observations with student surveys and achievement gains. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Lash, A., Tran, L., and Huang, M. (2016). Examining the validity of ratings from a classroom observation instrument for use in a district’s teacher evaluation system (REL 2016–135). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory West.

Morris-Mathews, H., Stark, K. R., Jones, N. D., Brownell, M. T., & Bell, C. A. (2021). Danielson’s framework for teaching: Convergence and divergence with conceptions of effectiveness in special education. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 54(1), 66-78.

Ronfeldt, M., & Truwit, M. (2023). Considerations for use of teaching quality measures. EdInstruments Brief, Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Brown University.

Psychometric Considerations

Psychometrics is the science of psychological assessment. A primary goal of EdInstruments is to provide information on crucial psychometric topics including Validity and Reliability – essential concepts of evaluation, which indicate how well an instrument measures a construct - as well as additional properties that are worthy of consideration when selecting an instrument of measurement.

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