Assessing School Settings: Interactions of Students and Teachers (ASSIST)

The Assessing School Settings: Interactions of Students and Teachers observational measure (ASSIST) is a classroom observation instrument that rates social processes occurring in the classroom. The instrument was initially developed to evaluate students' and teachers' behaviors using the Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS), however, recent updates have primarily focused on teachers. Teachers' behaviors are rated through event‐based tallies and global ratings. The measure has been used to evaluate the effects of school-wide interventions, and the relationship between teacher and student behaviors.


Classroom Instruction
1st Grade,
2nd Grade,
3rd Grade,
4th Grade,
5th Grade,
6th Grade,
7th Grade,
8th Grade,
9th Grade,
10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade

Administration Information

Ratings are based on 15-minute assessment windows

Access and Use




Dr. Catherine P. Bradshaw,

Open Access
Use in Research

Bradshaw, C. P., Pas, E. T., Bottiani, J. H., Debnam, K. J., Reinke, W. M., Herman, K. C., & Rosenberg, M. S. (2018). Promoting Cultural Responsivity and Student Engagement Through Double Check Coaching of Classroom Teachers: An Efficacy Study. School Psychology Review, 47(2), 118–134.

Debnam, K. J., Pas, E. T., Bottiani, J., Cash, A. H., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2015). An Examination of the Association Between Observed and Self-Reported Culturally Proficient Teaching Practices. Psychology in the Schools, 52(6), 533–548.

Pas, E. T., Cash, A. H., O’Brennan, L., Debnam, K. J., & Bradshaw, C. P. (2015). Profiles of classroom behavior in high schools: Associations with teacher behavior management strategies and classroom composition. Journal of School Psychology, 53(2), 137–148.


Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Ronfeldt, M., & Truwit, M. (2023). Considerations for use of teaching quality measures. EdInstruments Brief, Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Brown University.

Rusby, J. C., Crowley, R., Sprague, J., & Biglan, A. (2011). Observations of the middle school environment: The context for student behavior beyond the classroom. Psychology in the Schools, 48(4), 400–415.

Psychometric Considerations

Psychometrics is the science of psychological assessment. A primary goal of EdInstruments is to provide information on crucial psychometric topics including Validity and Reliability – essential concepts of evaluation, which indicate how well an instrument measures a construct - as well as additional properties that are worthy of consideration when selecting an instrument of measurement.

 Learn more