The Science Discourse Instrument (SDI) is an observation tool and rubric used to evaluate the quality of discusions in science classrooms. There are six categories for observation in the SDI, which are considered essential to strong discourse in science classrooms, three of the categories focus on teachers and three focus on students. The categories for teachers are: asking open ended questions; pressing for explanation; and linking discussions. The categories for students are: explaination of ideas; co-constructing ideas with peers; and critiquing the reasoning of others.
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Fishman, E. J., Borko, H., Osborne, J., Gomez, F., Rafanelli, S., Reigh, E., ... & Berson, E. (2017). A practice-based professional development program to support scientific argumentation from evidence in the elementary classroom. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 28(3), 222-249. https://doi.org/10.1080/1046560X.2017.1302727
Osborne, J. F., Borko, H., Fishman, E., Gomez Zaccarelli, F., Berson, E., Busch, K. C., ... & Tseng, A. (2019). Impacts of a practice-based professional development program on elementary teachers’ facilitation of and student engagement with scientific argumentation. American Educational Research Journal, 56(4), 1067-1112. https://doi.org/10.3102/0002831218812059