Quality of Classroom Instruction (QCI)

The Quality of Classroom Instruction (QCI) measures the quality of explicit instruction. QCI examines the following eight aspects of instructional interactions: teacher modeling, instructional pacing, response time, transitions between activities, student engagement, learning success, checks of student understanding, and academic feedback. Observers assign QCI scores to each instructional aspect on a scale from 1 (low quality) to 3 (high quality) at the end of the observed lesson.


Quality of classroom instruction
1st Grade,
2nd Grade,
3rd Grade,
4th Grade,
5th Grade,
6th Grade,
7th Grade,
8th Grade,
9th Grade,
10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade,
Post secondary

Administration Information


Access and Use

Use in Research

Bender, F. W. (2018). Linguistic features of instructional language during read aloud lessons. Available from Linguistics and Language Behavior Abstracts (LLBA); ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global. Retrieved from https://www.proquest.com/dissertations-theses/linguistic-features-instructional-language-during/docview/2139763191/se-2 

Jones, N. D., Bell, C. A., Brownell, M., Qi, Y., Peyton, D., Pua, D., ... & Holtzman, S. (2022). Using classroom observations in the evaluation of special education teachers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 44(3), 429-457. https://doi.org/10.3102/01623737211068523 

Pua, D. J., Peyton, D. J., Brownell, M. T., Contesse, V. A., & Jones, N. D. (2021). Preservice observation in special education: A validation study. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 54(1), 6-19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022219420920382


Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Doabler, C. T., Nelson, N. J., Kosty, D. B., Fien, H., Baker, S. K., Smolkowski, K., & Clarke, B. (2014). Examining teachers’ use of evidence-based practices during core mathematics instruction. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 39(2), 99-111. https://doi.org/10.1177/1534508413511848 

Doabler, C. T., Baker, S. K., Kosty, D. B., Smolkowski, K., Clarke, B., Miller, S. J., & Fien, H. (2015). Examining the association between explicit mathematics instruction and student mathematics achievement. The Elementary School Journal, 115(3), 303-333. https://doi.org/10.1086/679969 Full text from ERIC

Ronfeldt, M., & Truwit, M. (2023). Considerations for use of teaching quality measures. EdInstruments Brief, Annenberg Institute for School Reform, Brown University. www.edinstruments.com/teaching.

Psychometric Considerations

Psychometrics is the science of psychological assessment. A primary goal of EdInstruments is to provide information on crucial psychometric topics including Validity and Reliability – essential concepts of evaluation, which indicate how well an instrument measures a construct - as well as additional properties that are worthy of consideration when selecting an instrument of measurement.

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