Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS)

PALS is used to investigate the relationship between a student's learning environment and their affect, motivation, and behavior. It consists of both a student scale and a teacher scale. The student scale investigates personal achievement goal orientations, perceptions of teacher goals, perceptions of the goal structures in the classroom, achievement related beliefs, and perceptions of parents and home life. The teacher scale investigates perceptions of goal structures in the school, goal-related approaches to instruction, and personal teaching efficacy. 


Self Management,
Social Awareness

Learning environments, Achievement beliefs

1st Grade,
2nd Grade,
3rd Grade,
4th Grade,
5th Grade,
6th Grade,
7th Grade,
8th Grade,
9th Grade,
10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade

Administration Information

40 minutes, 94 items

A trained research assistant should administer the scales in a student's normal classroom. Typically all instructions and items are read aloud to students by the research assistant as they take the exam on paper. 


Access and Use


Eric Anderman

(614) 292-9860

Open Access
Use in Research

Alivernini, F., Manganelli, S., & Lucidi, F. (2018). Personal and classroom achievement goals: Their structures and relationships. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment36(4), 354-365.

Morrone, A. S., Harkness, S. S., D'ambrosio, B., & Caulfield, R. (2004). Patterns of instructional discourse that promote the perception of mastery goals in a social constructivist mathematics course. Educational Studies in Mathematics56(1), 19-38.      

Murayama, K., & Elliot, A. J. (2009). The joint influence of personal achievement goals and classroom goal structures on achievement-relevant outcomes. Journal of Educational Psychology101(2), 432.

Urdan, T., & Midgley, C. (2003). Changes in the perceived classroom goal structure and pattern of adaptive learning during early adolescence. Contemporary Educational Psychology28(4), 524-551.

Wolters, C. A., & Daugherty, S. G. (2007). Goal structures and teachers' sense of efficacy: Their relation and association to teaching experience and academic level. Journal of Educational Psychology99(1), 181.


Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Hackel, T. S., Jones, M. H., Carbonneau, K. J., & Mueller, C. E. (2016). Re-examining achievement goal instrumentation: Convergent validity of AGQ and PALS. Contemporary Educational Psychology46, 73-80.

Ross, M. E., Shannon, D. M., Salisbury-Glennon, J. D., & Guarino, A. (2002). The patterns of adaptive learning survey: A comparison across grade levels. Educational and Psychological Measurement62(3), 483-497.   

Ross, M. E., Blackburn, M., & Forbes, S. (2005). Reliability generalization of the patterns of adaptive learning survey goal orientation scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement65(3), 451-464.

National Comparison
Item Type

Psychometric Considerations

Psychometrics is the science of psychological assessment. A primary goal of EdInstruments is to provide information on crucial psychometric topics including Validity and Reliability – essential concepts of evaluation, which indicate how well an instrument measures a construct - as well as additional properties that are worthy of consideration when selecting an instrument of measurement.

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