Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (RSES)

The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) is a 10-item scale measuring self-esteem within respondents. Half of the scale items are worded positively, while the other half are worded negatively. Each scale item is answered using a 4-point Likert scale, 1 being strongly agree and 4 being strongly disagree. 


Self Awareness


8th Grade,
9th Grade,
10th Grade

Administration Information

1-2 minutes

Access and Use

Open Access
Use in Research

Berge, M., & Ranney, M. (2005). Self-esteem and stigma among persons with schizophrenia: implications for mental health. Care Management Journals6(3), 139-144.

Buglass, S. L., Binder, J. F., Betts, L. R., & Underwood, J. D. (2017). Motivators of online vulnerability: The impact of social network site use and FOMO. Computers in Human Behavior, 66, 248-255.

Marcotte, D., Fortin, L., Potvin, P., & Papillon, M. (2002). Gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence: Role of gender-typed characteristics, self-esteem, body image, stressful life events, and pubertal status. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 10(1), 29-42.

Schmitt, David P., and Jüri Allik. Simultaneous administration of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 53 nations: Exploring the universal and culture-specific features of global self-esteem. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(4), 623–642.

Wit, D. J. D., Karioja, K., Rye, B. J., & Shain, M. (2011). Perceptions of declining classmate and teacher support following the transition to high school: Potential correlates of increasing student mental health difficulties. Psychology in the Schools, 48(6), 556-572.


Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Goldsmith, R. E. (1986). Dimensionality of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality1(2), 253.

Gray-Little, B., Williams, V. S., & Hancock, T. D. (1997). An item response theory analysis of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin23(5), 443-451.

Greenberger, E., Chen, C., Dmitrieva, J., & Farruggia, S. P. (2003). Item-wording and the dimensionality of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: Do they matter?. Personality and Individual Differences35(6), 1241-1254.

Robins, Richard W., et al. Measuring global self-esteem: Construct validation of a single-item measure and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(2), 151–161.

Salerno, L., Ingoglia, S., & Coco, G. L. (2017). Competing factor structures of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and its measurement invariance across clinical and non-clinical samples. Personality and Individual Differences113, 13-19.

Item Type

Psychometric Considerations

Psychometrics is the science of psychological assessment. A primary goal of EdInstruments is to provide information on crucial psychometric topics including Validity and Reliability – essential concepts of evaluation, which indicate how well an instrument measures a construct - as well as additional properties that are worthy of consideration when selecting an instrument of measurement.

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