The Psychological Sense of School Membership includes 18-items that measure adolescent students' perceived belonging or psychological membership in the school environment.
Access and Use
Aquire permission from the developer, Carol Goodenow, before use.
Anderman, E. M. (2002). School effects on psychological outcomes during adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94(4), 795–809. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-06220.127.116.115
Shochet, I. M., Smith, C. L., Furlong, M. J., & Homel, R. (2011). A prospective study investigating the impact of school belonging factors on negative affect in adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(4), 586–595. https://doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2011.581616
Booker, K. C. (2007). Likeness, comfort, and tolerance: Examining African American adolescents’ sense of school belonging. The Urban Review, 39, 301-317. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11256-007-0053-y
Hughes, J., Hee im, M., & Allee, P. (2015). Effect of school belonging trajectories in grades 6-8 on achievement: Gender and ethnic differences. Journal of School Psychology, 53, 493-507. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsp.2015.08.001
Goodenow, C. (1993). The psychological sense of school membership among adolescents: Scale development and educational correlates. Psychology in the Schools, 30(1), 79-90. https://doi.org/10.1002/1520-6807(199301)30:1<79::AID-PITS2310300113>3.0.CO;2-X
Whiting, E. F., Everson, K. C., & Feinauer, E. (2018). The simple school belonging scale: Working toward a unidimensional measure of student belonging. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 51(3), 163-178. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481756.2017.1358057