New General Self-Efficacy Scale (NGSE)

The seven NGSE items Chen and Gully (1997) had found to be distinct from the SGSE scale and self-esteem. Because the authors wanted to ensure that the content domain of GSE would be well captured by the NGSE scale, they created seven additional NGSE items, intending to eliminate redundancies later. Consistent with procedures employed by Chen and Gully, when wording the new items authors carefully referred to Eden’s GSE conceptualization, which is consistent with definitions provided by other researchers (Gardner & Pierce, 1998; Judge et al., 1997; Judge, Erez, et al.,1998). Each of the first two authors independently generated between three and five new items. The authors combined the items and rewrote or eliminated any that were poorly worded, were clear duplicates, or seemed inconsistent with our GSE definition. The third author then reviewed the items for clarity, consistency with theory, and redundancy. This effort yielded a total of 14 NGSE items, 7 of which were new and 7 carried over from Chen and Gully’s study. The NGSE scale was scored on a 5-point Likert-type scale from strongly disagree (1) to strongly agree (5).


Self Awareness


Post secondary

Administration Information

<3 minutes

Access and Use


Gilad Chen

(301) 405-0923

Open Access
Use in Research

Davidson, O. B., Feldman, D. B., & Margalit, M. (2012). A focused intervention for 1st-year college students: Promoting hope, sense of coherence, and self-efficacy. The Journal of Psychology146(3), 333-352.

Hendricks, G., Savahl, S., Mathews, K., Raats, C., Jaffer, L., Matzdorff, A., & Pedro, A. (2015). Influences on life aspirations among adolescents in a low-income community in Cape Town, South Africa. Journal of Psychology in Africa25(4), 320-326.

Mulhem, H., El Alaoui, K., Hamdan, A. K., Abdul-Rahim, M. B., Pilotti, M. A., & Tallouzi, E. A. (2018). Responses to the statements of New General Self-Efficacy Scale: The case of the Arabic–English bilingual speaker. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology49(3), 470-487.


Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Chen, G., Gully, S. M., & Eden, D. (2001). Validation of a new general self-efficacy scale. Organizational Research Methods4(1), 62-83.

Chen, G., Gully, S. M., & Eden, D. (2004). General self‐efficacy and self‐esteem: Toward theoretical and empirical distinction between correlated self‐evaluations. Journal of Organizational Behavior: The International Journal of Industrial, Occupational and Organizational Psychology and Behavior25(3), 375-395.

Item Type

Psychometric Considerations

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