Dispositional Hope Scale (DHS)

Dispositional Hope Scale [22] assesses a global trait based hope score for individuals above 15 years old. The scale is in 4-point Likert-type scale ranging from Definitely False to Definitely True. There are twelve items in the scale distributed as follows: pathways subscale (4 items), agentic thinking subscale (4 items) and four negative statements as fillers that aren’t related to hope.

According to Snyder’s (1995, 2002) point of view, hope includes three components: (a) goals that have sufficient value to an individual and require a certain amount of effort to achieve, and (b) Pathways thinking, which refers to the reasonable Pathways that are designed by the individual to reach his or her goals. In addition, when there are obstacles blocking one of the Pathways the individual is able to create alternative Pathways to achieve the goals: (c) Agency thinking, a motivational factor related to hope, which refers to the individual’s perception of his or her own ability to utilise Pathways and strategies to achieve goals


Self Management

Goal Directed Behavior, Agency

10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade,
Post secondary
Other Language/s
French, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Turkish

Administration Information

8 items

Access and Use

Open Access
Use in Research

Li, Z., Mao, X., He, Z., Zhang, B., &; Yin, X. (2018). Measure invariance of Snyder's Dispositional Hope Scale in American and Chinese college students. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 21(4), 263-270. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajsp.12332

Lee, C. S., & Park, J. Y. (2016). The effects of acculturative and family-related stress on the well-being of immigrant women in Korea: The mediating effect of hope. Indian Journal of Science and Technology9(26), 1-7. https://doi.org/10.17485/ijst/2016/v9i26/97281

Lee, C. S., Park, J. Y., Cliford, N., Naseli, D. N., Ndong, A. P., Juliet, E. S., & Besumbu, E. (2018). Influence of Human Rights Victimization on Happiness: Mediating Effect of Grit and Hope. International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics120(6), 5765-5775. https://acadpubl.eu/hub/2018-120-6/5/407.pdf

Sünbül, Z. A., & Çekici, F. (2018). Hope as a unique agent of resilience in socio-economically disadvantaged adolescents. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 7(4), 299–304. https://doi.org/10.11591/ijere.v7i4.15354

Tomás, J. M., Gutiérrez, M., Georgieva, S., & Hernández, M. (2020). The effects of self‐efficacy, hope, and engagement on the academic achievement of secondary education in the Dominican Republic. Psychology in the Schools57(2), 191-203. https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.22321


Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Brouwer, D., Meijer, R. R., Weekers, A. M., & Baneke, J. J. (2008). On the dimensionality of the Dispositional Hope Scale. Psychological assessment20(3), 310. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/1040-3590.20.3.310

Creamer, M., O’Donnell, M. L., Carboon, I., Lewis, V., Densley, K., McFarlane, A., ... & Bryant, R. A. (2009). Evaluation of the Dispositional Hope Scale in injury survivors. Journal of Research in Personality43(4), 613-617. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2009.03.002 

Gomez, R., McLaren, S., Sharp, M., Smith, C., Hearn, K., & Turner, L. (2015). Evaluation of the bifactor structure of the Dispositional Hope Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment97(2), 191-199. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2014.938158

Roesch, S. C., & Vaughn, A. A. (2006). Evidence for the factorial validity of the dispositional hope scale: Cross-ethnic and cross-gender measurement equivalence. European Journal of Psychological Assessment22(2), 78. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1027/1015-5759.22.2.78

Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., ... & Harney, P. (1991). The will and the ways: development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of personality and social psychology60(4), 570. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0022-3514.60.4.570

Item Type

Psychometric Considerations

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