14-Item Resilience Scale (RS-14)

The RS-14 is the short version of the Resilience Scale and is strongly correlated with the Resilience Scale. It consists of 14 of the Resilience Scale items: 2, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 17, 21, & 23. The scale is a 7-point Likert type scale from 1 (Strongly disagree) to 7 (Strongly agree) for each item. Higher scores mean superior levels of resilience tendencies. Scores are calculated by a summation of response values for each item, thus enabling scores to range from 14 to 98.


Self Management,
Self Awareness


6th Grade,
7th Grade,
8th Grade,
9th Grade,
10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade,
Post secondary
Other Language/s
Amharic, Arabic, Bahasa Indonesian, Bosnian, Creole, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Finnish, French, Georgian, German, Greek, Hebrew, Hindi, Icelandic, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Lithuanian, Malay, Nepali, Persian, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal), Portuguese (Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovenian, Spanish Castilian, Swedish, Tamil, Thai, Turkish, and Urdu

Administration Information

3-4 minutes

Access and Use


Student Price - $75

Researcher Price - $150 (1-150 copies) 

Researcher Price - $200 (151-300 copies)

Researcher Price - $250 (301-450 copies)

Researcher Price - $300 (451-600 copies)

Researcher Price - $350 (601-750 copies)

Researcher Price - $400 (751-900 copies)

Open Access
Use in Research

Aiena, B. J., Baczwaski, B. J., Schulenberg, S. E., & Buchanan, E. M. (2014). Measuring resilience with the RS–14: A tale of two samples. Journal of Personality Assessment97(3), 291-300. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2014.951445

Beauvais, A. M., Stewart, J. G., DeNisco, S., & Beauvais, J. E. (2014). Factors related to academic success among nursing students: A descriptive correlational research study. Nurse Education Today34(6), 918-923. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2013.12.005

Eaves, J. L., & Payne, N. (2019). Resilience, stress and burnout in student midwives. Nurse Education Today79, 188-193. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2019.05.012

Ebulum GC, Chidiobi RU. (2016). Resilience, gender and age as predictors of satisfaction with academic major among university undergraduates. International Journal of Research in Engineering and Social Sciences, 6(4), 13-23.  http://www.indusedu.org/pdfs/IJRESS/IJRESS_743_59772.pdf

Yen, J. Y., Lin, H. C., Chou, W. P., Liu, T. L., & Ko, C. H. (2019). Associations among resilience, stress, depression, and Internet gaming disorder in young adults. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health16(17), 3181. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16173181


Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Callegari, C., Bertù, L., Lucano, M., Ielmini, M., Braggio, E., & Vender, S. (2016). Reliability and validity of the Italian version of the 14-item Resilience Scale. Psychology Research and Behavior Management, 9, 277–284. https://doi.org/10.2147/prbm.s115657

Cénat, J. M., Hébert, M., Karray, A., & Derivois, D. (2018). Psychometric properties of the Resilience Scale – 14 in a sample of college students from France. The Brain, 44(6), 517–522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.encep.2018.04.002

Kwon, H. J., & Kwon, S. J. (2014). Korean version of the 14-Item Resilience Scale (RS-14) for university students: A validity and reliability study. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 23(4), 226–232. https://doi.org/10.12934/jkpmhn.2014.23.4.226

Losoi, H., Turunen, S., Wäljas, M., Helminen, M., Öhman, J., Julkunen, J., & Rosti-Otajärvi, E. (2013). Psychometric properties of the Finnish version of the Resilience Scale and its short version. Psychology, Community & Health, 2(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.5964/pch.v2i1.40

Pritzker, S., & Minter, A. (2014). Measuring adolescent resilience: An examination of the cross-ethnic validity of the RS-14. Children and Youth Services Review, 44, 328–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2014.06.022

Item Type

Psychometric Considerations

Psychometrics is the science of psychological assessment. A primary goal of EdInstruments is to provide information on crucial psychometric topics including Validity and Reliability – essential concepts of evaluation, which indicate how well an instrument measures a construct - as well as additional properties that are worthy of consideration when selecting an instrument of measurement.

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