Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI)

The Zarit Burden Inventory (ZBI) is a self-report instrument that measures the level of burden that principal caregivers experience. Originally developed for caregivers of persons with dementia, ZBI is now used with various types of caregivers, including parents of children with health, behavioral, and developmental problems. The current full version, ZBI-22, has 22 items, each using a 5-point Likert-type scale. Shorter versions exist; see Yu et al. (2019) in the psychometric references below.


Burden experienced by caregivers of children with health, behavioral, or developmental problems
< 3 Years,
1st Grade,
2nd Grade,
3rd Grade,
4th Grade,
5th Grade,
6th Grade,
7th Grade,
8th Grade,
9th Grade,
10th Grade,
11th Grade,
12th Grade,
Post secondary
Other Language/s
Afrikaans, Arabic, Bahasa/Indonesian, Bengali, Bosnian, Bulgarian, Cebuano, Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, Ganda (Luganda), Georgian, German, German, Greek, Gujarati, Hebrew, Hindi, Hungarian, Igbo, Italian, Japanese, Kannada, Kinyarwanda, Korean, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malay, Malayalam, Mandarin, Marathi, Mongolian, Nepali, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Sinhalese, Slovak, Slovenian, Spanish, Swedish, Tagalog, Tamil, Telugu, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Urdu, Vietnamese, Zulu

Administration Information

22 items

Access and Use




Steven H Zarit, MAPI Research Trust

Use in Research

Al-Balushi, N., Al-Alawi, M., Al Shekaili, M., Al-Balushi, M., Mirza, H., Al-Huseini, S., ... & Al-Adawi, S. (2019). Predictors of burden of care among caregivers of drug-naive children and adolescents with ADHD: A cross-sectional correlative study from Muscat, Oman. Journal of Attention Disorders, 23(5), 517-526.

Çınar, S., Boztepe, H., Ay, A., Yılmaz, P., Güllü, H., Karadavut, B., ... & Akyüz, C. (2021). Predictors of parenting stress in parents of children with cancer. European Journal of Oncology Nursing, 54, 102022.

Prieto, V. (2022). Caregiver Burden, Caregiving Satisfaction, and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Caregivers of Children with Medical Complexity. Pediatric Nursing, 48(3), 111-121.


Computer scoring,
Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Anthony-Bergstone, C. R., Zarit, S. H., & Gatz, M. (1988). Symptoms of psychological distress among caregivers of dementia patients. Psychology and Aging, 3(3), 245.

Zarit, S., Orr, N. K., & Zarit, J. M. (1985). The hidden victims of Alzheimer's disease: Families under stress. New York University Press. 

Zarit, S. H., Reever, K. E., & Bach-Peterson, J. (1980). Relatives of the impaired elderly: Correlates of feelings of burden. The Gerontologist, 20(6), 649-655. 

Zarit, S. H., & Zarit, J. M. (1990). The memory and behavior problems checklist and the burden interview. Gerontology Center, The Pennsylvania State University. 

Yu, J., Yap, P., & Liew, T. M. (2019). The optimal short version of the Zarit Burden Interview for dementia caregivers: diagnostic utility and externally validated cutoffs. Aging & Mental Health, 23(6), 706-710.

Item Type

Psychometric Considerations

Psychometrics is the science of psychological assessment. A primary goal of EdInstruments is to provide information on crucial psychometric topics including Validity and Reliability – essential concepts of evaluation, which indicate how well an instrument measures a construct - as well as additional properties that are worthy of consideration when selecting an instrument of measurement.

 Learn more