Family Empowerment Scale (FES)

The Family Empowerment Scale (FES) measures empowerment in families whose children have emotional disabilities. The 34 items of the FES questionnaire focus on the level of empowerment (with respect to the family, service system, and larger community and political environment) and the way empowerment is expressed (attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors).


Empowerment in families whose children have emotional disabilities

Administration Information

34 items

Access and Use




Research and Training Center for Pathways to Positive Futures, Portland State University,

Open Access
Use in Research

Bourke-Taylor, H. M., Joyce, K. S., Grzegorczyn, S., & Tirlea, L. (2021). Profile of mothers of children with a disability who seek support for mental health and wellbeing. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1-14.

Hielkema, T., Boxum, A. G., Hamer, E. G., La Bastide-Van Gemert, S., Dirks, T., Reinders-Messelink, H. A., ... & Hadders-Algra, M. (2020). LEARN2MOVE 0–2 years, a randomized early intervention trial for infants at very high risk of cerebral palsy: Family outcome and infant’s functional outcome. Disability and Rehabilitation, 42(26), 3762-3770. 

McLeod, S., Davis, E., Rohr, K., McGill, N., Miller, K., Roberts, A., ... & Ivory, N. (2020). Waiting for speech-language pathology services: A randomised controlled trial comparing therapy, advice and device. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 22(3), 372-386.

Pearson, J. N., & Meadan, H. (2021). FACES: An advocacy intervention for African American parents of children with autism. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 59(2), 155-171. 

Weist, M. D., Hoover, S., Lever, N., Youngstrom, E. A., George, M., McDaniel, H. L., ... & Hoagwood, K. (2019). Testing a package of evidence-based practices in school mental health. School Mental Health, 11(4), 692-706.


Manual scoring
Psychometric References

Koren, P. E., DeChillo, N., & Friesen, B. J. (1992). Measuring empowerment in families whose children have emotional disabilities: A brief questionnaire. Rehabilitation Psychology, 37(4), 305–321. Pdf can also be found here 

Item Type

Psychometric Considerations

Psychometrics is the science of psychological assessment. A primary goal of EdInstruments is to provide information on crucial psychometric topics including Validity and Reliability – essential concepts of evaluation, which indicate how well an instrument measures a construct - as well as additional properties that are worthy of consideration when selecting an instrument of measurement.

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